Successful Anti-Fraud Practice in China

Telecom and online fraud began to appear in China in the 1990s and has thereafter spread wildly and affected a large number of citizens. China's top leaders have been paying high attention to this issue, requiring adhering to a people-centered approach, paying attention to governance at the source and comprehensive governance, sticking to joint action and mass prevention and governance and resolutely curbing the trend of frequent occurrences of such crimes. The Chinese government adheres to upholding fundamental principles and breaking new ground, problem orientation and systems thinking, continuously explores the path of cracking down on crimes of telecom and online fraud and advances various tasks in depth with unprecedented efforts, which has led to unprecedented historical achievements. The number of telecom and online fraud cases solved in China in 2021 was five times that of five years ago. The incidence of such cases in China has declined year on year for 17 consecutive months since June 2021, showing effective curbing of the trend of frequent occurrences. In the world today, crimes of telecom and online fraud are rapidly developing and spreading in various countries and have become a worldwide common danger and a global problem to solve. What shall we do China has explored a Chinese solution to this global problem through successful practice: adhering to the people-centered approach and comprehensively strengthening the development of special research, special teams, special case solving and expertise as well as internal synergy and external synergy.

Strengthening special research to continuously improve the legal system

Crimes of telecom and online fraud represent a complex social governance problem. Diversified, all-round special research at various levels is the prerequisite for the targeted, accurate and efficient crackdown work and is the basis of planning and a precondition for success.

-Policy documents have been researched and formulated. Based on special research, the Chinese government has successively introduced a series of normative policy documents such as the Opinions on Strengthening the Work of Cracking down on and Controlling Crimes of Telecom and Online Fraud, the Announcement on Preventing and Cracking down on Crimes of Telecom and Online Fraud, the Notice on Matters concerning Strengthening the Administration of Payment and Settlement and Preventing New-Type Illegal and Criminal Telecom and Online Activities, the Work Plan for Advancing the Construction of a Long-term Mechanism for Preventing and Controlling Crimes of Telecom and Online Fraud Using Big Data and the Several Provisions on the Return of Frozen Funds Involved in Cases of New-Type Violations of Laws and Crimes Related to Telecommunications Networks.

-Legal guiding opinions have been researched and introduced. In order to crack down on crimes of telecom and online fraud, the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate and the Ministry of Public Security jointly introduced the Opinions (I) and (II) on Several Issues concerning the Application of Law in the Handling of Telecom and Online Fraud and other Criminal Cases. China's Law on Combating Telecom and Online Fraud was officially introduced in September 2022 to provide strong legal support for the crackdown work.

-Research on the patterns of crimes and countermeasures has been strengthened. The Chinese government has built a diversified research system in key areas such as public security, communications, finance and the Internet involving colleges and universities, research institutes and societies and associations to keep an eye on changes in modus operandi and formulate corresponding crackdown countermeasures, keep an eye on changes in criminal groups and strengthen corresponding research on rectification measures, and keep an eye on changes in defrauded groups and strengthen corresponding research on accurate early warning and publicity and prevention countermeasures. In 2021, the Chinese government established the National Center for Study of New Types of Crimes and 11 sub-centers to continuously strengthen research on new criminal means, new problems, new trends and new situations and always take the initiative in cracking down on the crimes.

Strengthening special teams to continuously improve their capabilities and levels

Crimes of telecom and online fraud are specialized transnational organized crimes, therefore, the Chinese government adheres to cracking down on such specialized crimes through special means. It has established special agencies, replenished special forces and strengthened specialized training to realize leapfrog improvement in capabilities and levels of cracking down on telecom and online fraud.

-Four-tiered anti-fraud centers have been established. China has set up a National Anti-Fraud Center and eight national sub-centers that integrate professional talents, professional means, professional equipment and professional capabilities and encouraged provinces, cities and counties to establish corresponding anti-fraud centers.

-Special anti-fraud forces have been replenished. According to the principle of deploying police forces based on the extent of emergencies, Chinese police continue to replenish special anti-fraud teams depending on the local incidence of telecom and online fraud cases. At the same time, Chinese competent departments for finance, communications, the Internet, etc. have designated special forces to take charge of anti-fraud work, and their teams are constantly expanding.

-Anti-fraud expert teams have been set up. The Chinese government has set up a national think tank and expert team to crack down on telecom and online fraud and selected expert members from all walks of life; Chinese police have selected invited criminal investigation experts, anti-fraud experts and talented and competent people according to different teams and levels to provide strong talent guarantee and intellectual support for anti-fraud work.

-Anti-fraud specialized training has been strengthened. Chinese procuratorial, judicial and public security departments and competent departments for finance, communications and the Internet have held more than 10,000 various specialized training sessions on cracking down on crimes of telecom and online fraud. In 2021, the Criminal Investigation Police University of China took the lead in launching the telecom and online fraud investigation direction of the Science of Criminal Investigation major and enrolled the first group of undergraduates in September of the same year, which has blazed a trail for public security colleges and universities to cultivate specialized anti-fraud talents.

Strengthening special case solving to continuously strengthen crackdown and deterrence

Crackdowns are the best prevention. Chinese police have maintained severe combat against crimes of telecom and online fr